NR5A1 mutations have been detected in 46,XY individuals with disorders of sexual development (DSD) but apparently normal adrenal function and in 46,XX women with normal sexual development yet primary ovarian insufficiency (POI).
A variant in steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, encoded by the gene NR5A1), p.Arg92Trp, has recently been reported in multiple families with 46,XX ovotesticular or testicular disorders of sex development (DSD).
Among the remaining 70 cases there were patients with chromosome abnormalities which are not included in the DSD classification as well as rare NR5A1 variants of uncertain significance and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and microorchidism in 46,XY subjects.
In 46,XY individuals, NR5A1-related phenotypes may range from disorders of sex development (DSD) to oligo/azoospermia, and in 46,XX individuals, from 46,XX ovotesticular and testicular DSD to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI).
Investigations of humans with disorders of sex development (DSDs) resulted in the discovery of many of the now-known mammalian sex-determining genes, including SRY, RSPO1, SOX9, NR5A1, WT1, NR0B1, and WNT4.
More recently, however, it has emerged that heterozygous loss of function mutations in NR5A1 can be found relatively frequently in children and adults with 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD) but with apparently normal adrenal function.
Mutations identified by NR5A1 sequencing have been associated with disorders of sex development (DSD), ranging from sex reversal to severe hypospadias in 46,XY patients and premature ovarian failure (POF) in 46,XX patients.
Mutations in NR5A1 have been reported as a frequent cause of 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD) associated to a broad phenotypic spectrum ranging from infertility, ambiguous genitalia, anorchia to gonadal dygenesis and female genitalia.
Our results suggest that the broad phenotype in these heterozygous NR5A1 46,XY DSD subjects may well be explained by an oligogenic mode of inheritance, in which multiple hits, individually non-deleterious, may contribute to a DSD phenotype unique to each heterozygous SF-1/NR5A1 individual.