Deficiency of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type3 (17β-HSD3) isoenzyme which catalyzes the synthesis of testosterone from Δ4-androstenedione, is the cause of 46, XY disorders of sex development (DSD).
The expression of genes and proteins related to the NAcht Leucine-rich repeat Protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, including NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), caspase-1 and its activated forms, and the inflammatory factor interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and its activated forms were measured.
Multiple cases of Disorders of Sex Development in human patients or sex reversal in mice and other vertebrates can be explained by mutations affecting upstream regulators of Sox9 expression, such as the product of the Y chromosome gene Sry that triggers testis differentiation.
We have screened a cohort of 26 patients with 46,XX (ovo)testicular DSD and identified three unrelated individuals with this NR5A1 variant (p.Arg92Trp), as well as one patient with a novel NR5A1 variant (c.779C>T; p.Ala260Val).
After establishing the HIRI rat models, we primarily studied the role of pyroptosis in hippocampal and cortical neuron injury through detecting NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), pro-caspase-1, cleaved-caspase-1, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), gasdermin D (GSDMD), interleukin-1beta (IL-1<i>β</i>), and interleukin-18 (IL-18) expressions with western blotting, immunohistochemical staining, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Unbalanced translocations of Y-chromosomal fragments harboring the sex-determining region Y gene (SRY) to the X chromosome or an autosome result in 46,XX and 45,X testicular disorders of sex development (DSD), respectively.
Additionally, mild moxibustion induced mRNA and protein expression of intestine lectin 1 but inhibited the expression of IL-1β, IL-18, and resistance-like molecule β by promoting the NLRP6 and reducing the mRNA and protein expression of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) and cysteinyl-aspartate-specific proteinase 1 (Caspase-1).
Among the remaining 70 cases there were patients with chromosome abnormalities which are not included in the DSD classification as well as rare NR5A1 variants of uncertain significance and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and microorchidism in 46,XY subjects.
Western blot was used to detect the expression of key proteins in inflammatory signaling cascades including toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-1 (Caspase-1) and IL-1β, as well as insulin signaling in liver and prefrontal cortex of rats.
We performed exome or Sanger sequencing on 79 46,XX SRY-negative individuals with either unexplained virilization or with testicular/ovotesticular disorders/differences of sex development (TDSD/OTDSD).