Signaling through the WNT/β-catenin and the RAS (rat sarcoma)/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathways plays a key role in the regulation of various physiological cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and cell death.
A total of 69 LSTs, comprising 36 Gr-LSTs and 33 NGr-LSTs, were immunohistochemically stained with MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, CD10 (markers of gastrointestinal cell lineage), p53, β-catenin and Ki-67 antibodies, and examined for alteration in exon 1 of v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and exon 15 of v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homologue B1 (BRAF) by polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequencing.
Immunohistochemistry revealed overexpression of cyclin D1 in 2 out of 8 endometrial stromal nodules, 1 out of 17 low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, and 6 out of 13 undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas, and these 6 undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas simultaneously expressed nuclear beta-catenin.
We investigated the genetic alterations of the CTNNB1 coding beta-catenin protein and expression of several genes downstream of Wnt signals in 4 benign and 17 malignant pediatric liver tumors (PLTs) consisting of 15 HBL, 1 hepatocellular carcinoma, and 1 hepatic immature sarcoma.
Furthermore, the expression of beta-catenin, an important component of the Wnt-signalling pathway, was regulated in an opposite manner to SFRP4, being particularly increased in undifferentiated sarcomas.