Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)3 and phosphatidylinositol‑4,5‑bisphosphate 3‑kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) mutations are found in various types of cancer, such as urinary bladder cancer, human papillomavirus‑positive tonsillar and base of the tongue squamous cell carcinoma, breast cancer and some childhood sarcomas.
Together, our findings suggest that HBc promotes tumorigenesis of hepatoma cells by enhancing the expression of total Src and the active form of the kinase and subsequently activates Src/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, revealing novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of HBV-associated hepatocarcinogenesis.-Liu, W., Guo, T.-F., Jing, Z.-T., Yang, Z., Liu, L., Yang, Y.-P., Lin, X., Tong, Q.-Y.
The RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways are considered to be 2 major mechanisms for sarcoma proliferation and survival and to the authors' knowledge their role in UPS remains unclear.
We performed mutational analysis of recurrent mutation sites of PIK3CA (exons 9 and 20), JAK2 (exon 14), BRAF (exon 15), FOXL2 (exon 1), IDH1 (exon 4), AKT1 (exon 3), and EZH2 (exon 16) genes in 108 sarcomas by single- strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing.
The p53 and phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog/mechanistic target of rapamycin (PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR) pathways frequently are altered in sarcoma with complex genomics, such as leiomyosarcoma (LMS) or undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS).
Although the increase in apoptosis did not further impact on tumor growth when compared to the efficient growth inhibition by GDC-0941 alone, these findings suggest that inhibition of PI3K may improve DOX-induced proapoptotic effects in sarcoma.
Tumors and matched normal thyroid samples were tested for RAS, for the v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene (BRAF) substitution of valine (V) for glutamate (E) at codon 600 (the V600E mutation), for phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), for catalytic PI3k p110 subunit alpha (PIK3CA), for AKT, and for the presence of rearranged during transfection (ret) proto-oncogene/PTC (RET-PTC) and paired box-8 (PAX8)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) fusion protein (PAX8-PPARgamma) rearrangements by direct sequencing and reverse transcriptase-polymerases chain reaction analyses, respectively.
We analyzed the PI3K-AKT signaling cascade in a cohort of sarcomas and found a marked induction of insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS2) and phosphorylated AKT and a concomitant upregulation of downstream effectors in most leiomyosarcomas.