Direct sequencing was historically the gold standard for mutation testing for EGFR, KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue) and BRAF (v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homologue B1) requiring a high ratio of tumour to normal cells, but this has been superseded by more sensitive methods.
Activating BRAF (V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B) mutations occur in approximately 5% to 10% of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, mostly V600E mutation, and it is associated with distinct clinical and pathological features.
The rapid advances in the molecular biology and genetics have improved the understanding of molecular pathogenesis of v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF), feline sarcoma viral oncogene v-kit (KIT), and neuroblastoma v-Ras oncogene homolog (NRAS) mutant melanomas with the subsequent development of targeted therapeutic agents.
We performed mutational analysis of recurrent mutation sites of PIK3CA (exons 9 and 20), JAK2 (exon 14), BRAF (exon 15), FOXL2 (exon 1), IDH1 (exon 4), AKT1 (exon 3), and EZH2 (exon 16) genes in 108 sarcomas by single- strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing.
Frequent somatic mutations of BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B) exon T1799A, which are implicated in the initial events of promutagenic cellular proliferation, are detected in both malignant melanomas (MM) and melanocytic nevi (MN).