<b>Rationale:</b> Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by the absence of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression, but the effect of lacking the three factors on TNBC is unclear.
Triple-negative breast cancer has been of great interest to oncologists because these cancers do not benefit from hormonal therapies or treatments targeted against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 receptors.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacking expression of steroid receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, having chemotherapy as the only therapeutic option, is characterised by early relapses and poor outcome.We investigated intratumoural (i.t.) levels of the pro-angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and survival in patients with TNBC compared with non-TNBC.
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients are not likely to benefit from anti-estrogen or anti-HER2 therapy and this phenotype is associated with a more aggressive clinical course and worse clinical outcome.
Triple-negative breast cancer [TNBC, which is negative for the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2] is a high-risk form of the disease without a specific therapy.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), showing no or low expressions of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and HER2, considered important clinical biomarkers, accounts for 10% to 20% of all breast cancers.
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is very aggressive and currently has no specific therapeutic targets, such as hormone receptors or human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2); therefore, prognosis is poor.