This review will focus on recent therapeutic innovations for TNBC, including poly-ADP-ribosyl polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway inhibitors, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors.
In the present study, we investigated whether miR-361-5p can act as a tumor suppressor by targeting required for cell differentiation 1 homolog (RQCD1) and inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway in TNBC.
The mutational profile of TNBC during treatment as inferred from patterns of mutant allele frequencies in matched pre-and post-NAC samples showed that RD harbored alterations of cell cycle progression, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistance pathways.
The present study examined the effects of tetrandrine suppressing proliferation, targeting LC3, p62, and Beclin-1 autophagy genes by inhibiting PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) MDA-MB-231 cell.
TET1 expression correlated with sensitivity to drugs targeting the PI3K-mTOR pathway, and CRISPR-mediated deletion of TET1 in two independent TNBC cell lines resulted in reduced expression of PI3K pathway genes, upregulation of immune response genes, and substantially reduced cellular proliferation, suggesting dependence of oncogenic pathways on TET1 overexpression.
Poly(ADP‑ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K) inhibitors and carboplatin (CBP) have demonstrated sufficient efficacy and safety for their use as individual drugs for the treatment of TNBC; however, their effects on TNBC when used as a combination have not been investigated.
CF33 was effective <i>in vitro</i> with potent cytotoxicity and efficient intracellular replication observed in TNBC lines with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway mutations that resulted in endogenous phospho-Akt (p-Akt) activity (BT549, Hs578T, and MDA-MB-468).
Using three-dimensional stromal-TNBC cells cultures, we demonstrate that CXCL12 - CXCR4 signaling significantly increases growth of TNBC cells and drug resistance through activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways.
Further study of underlying mechanisms demonstrated that DANCR bound with RXRA and increased its serine 49/78 phosphorylation via GSK3β, resulting in activating PIK3CA transcription, and subsequently enhanced PI3K/AKT signaling and TNBC tumorigenesis.
The overall findings suggest that Chetomin inhibited the growth of human TNBC cells by caspase-dependent apoptosis and modulation of PI3K/mTOR signalling and could be used as a novel chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human TNBC in future.