Since the Gly380Argachondroplasia mutation was recognized, similar observations regarding the conserved nature of FGFR mutations and resulting phenotype have been made regarding other skeletal phenotypes, including hypochondroplasia, thanatophoric dysplasia, and Muenke coronal craniosynostosis.
We examined the G380R mutation (G > A and G > C transition) and the mutation G375C (G > T transition at codon 375) in 31 sporadic patients and in one family diagnosed clinically to have achondroplasia.
A mouse model for achondroplasia was generated by introducing the human mutation (glycine 380-arginine) into the mouse fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (G374R) by a "knock-in" approach using gene targeting leading to a constitutively active receptor.
Here we compared the ubiquitylation of either wild type or a K508A 'kinase-dead' mutant of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) with that of its naturally occurring overactive mutants, G380R as in achondroplasia, or K650E involved in thanatophoric dysplasia.
An exclusive paternal origin of mutations, and increased paternal age, were previously described for a different mutation (c.1138G>A) of the FGFR3 gene causing achondroplasia, as well as for mutations of the related FGFR2 gene causing Apert, Crouzon and Pfeiffer syndromes.
This assay, which is performed on the LightCycler thermocycler, enables the rapid and reliable detection of the two most common FGFR3 mutations associated with ACH (1138G --> A and 1138G --> C; G380R) and HYCH (1620C --> A and 1620 C --> G; N540K) in a single test.
The vast majority of patients with achondroplasia have a G-to-A transition at position 1138 of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) cDNA sequence, resulting in the Gly-to-Arg substitution at position 380 of the FGFR3 protein.
We describe a Klinefelter patient (non-mosaic 47,XXY karyotype) who was heterozygous for the classical 1138G>A mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene, which is a gain-of-function mutation resulting in achondroplasia.
The assay has been tested in 50 healthy controls, 3 known patients with achondroplasia, and 5 amniotic fluids suspected of having achondroplasia and for whom we had previously determined the genotypes for the c.1138G>A mutation by PCR-RFLP.
2 chorionic villi samples had a G380R mutation due to a mother with ACH; 4 amniotic fluid samples with TDs in which the foetuses had micromelia plus hypoplastic thoraces; 5 samples from abortuses with TDs.