Children with ataxia telangiectasia (AT), a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in ATM, which is critical for repairing DNA defects, are at risk for the development of hematologic malignancy, frequently driven by infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
These have resulted in higher resolution structural models of the signalling proteins ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), and ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein), along with various structures of Rad51.
Parents who opposed against an early diagnosis emphasized the joy of having a seemingly healthy child until diagnosis.What is Known:• Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a devastating DNA repair disorder with a huge impact on quality of life of patients and their parents.• Patients with A-T may incidentally be identified at birth as the consequence of neonatal screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID).What is New:• The majority of Dutch parents of A-T patients (74%) would have preferred an early diagnosis of their child in the asymptomatic phase of the disease.• Major arguments for an early A-T diagnosis were (1) the experienced insecurity in diagnostic trajectories and its impact on families and (2) the knowledge of being ATM mutation carriers when deciding about family planning.
In the study the modulating effect of inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKK): ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated), ATR (Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3 Related) and DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase) on genotoxicity of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) in HepG2 human hepatocellular cancer cells was investigated.
Mutations in the ATM gene result in a condition known as ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) that is characterized by cancer predisposition, radiosensitivity, neurodegeneration, sterility, and acquired immune deficiency.
In this report, we present the genetic characterization of a 4-year-old female with clinical diagnosis of A-T. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) revealed two novel heterozygous mutations in the ATM gene: a single-nucleotide variant (SNV) at exon 47 (NM_000051.3:c.6899G > C; p.Trp2300Ser) and ∼90 kb genomic duplication spanning exons 17-61, NG_009830.1:g.(41245_49339)_(137044_147250)dup.
CHK-2 is activated by the PIP3-kinase-like kinases (PI3KKs) ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR), and in metazoan also by DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs).