We conducted a case-control study (4,059 cases and 4,059 matched controls) nested within the E3N French cohort study to estimate the risk of breast cancer associated with long-term exposure to airborne cadmium pollution, and its effect according to molecular subtype of breast cancer (estrogen receptor negative/positive [ER-/ER+] and progesterone receptor negative/positive [PR-/PR+]).
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women, where hormone receptor-positive (HR+; estrogen receptor and/or progesterone receptor) BC comprises the majority (>50%) and has better prognosis, while a minority (<20%) are triple negative BC (TNBC), which has an aggressive phenotype.
The positive association of postmenopausal BC risk and specifically estrogen receptor (ER)-positive BC, is presumably due largely to accumulation of estrogen in the adipose tissue of the breast and other tissues.
Current standard-of-care (SOC) therapy for breast cancer includes targeted therapies such as endocrine therapy for estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) positive; anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-enriched; and general chemotherapy for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes.
The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of treatment with combined doses of bac I and bac II using four cell lines representative of the breast cancer subtypes: triple negative (MDA-MB-231), estrogen receptor positive (T47D and MCF7) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive (BT-474).
In our binary regression model, breast cancer patients with rosacea had a higher prevalence of estrogen receptor-positive status, lower high-density lipoprotein levels and higher low-density lipoprotein than patients with breast cancer but no rosacea.
Very interestingly, NMK-T-057 was found to inhibit proliferation, colony-forming ability, and motility in various breast cancer (BC) cells such as MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, 4T1 (triple-negative cells), and MCF-7 (estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)-positive cell line) with negligible cytotoxicity against noncancerous cells (MCF-10A and peripheral blood mononuclear cells).
The prevalence of triple-negative and hormone receptor-negative breast cancer (negative forestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor) among each group of foreign-born black women was compared with that among US-born black women and was expressed as the adjusted prevalence rate ratio, accounting for sociodemographic and tumor characteristics.