Cal09 showed impaired pH1N1 nasopharyngeal shedding (16 of 118 children [14%, 95% CI 8·0-21·1] with shedding at day 2 after administration of LAIV) compared with H3N2 (54 of 118 [46%, 36·6-55·2]; p<0·0001) and influenza B (95 of 118 [81%, 72·2-87·2]; p<0·0001), along with suboptimal serum antibody (seroconversion in six of 118 [5%, 1·9-10·7]) and T-cell responses (CD4+ interferon γ-positive and/or CD4+ interleukin 2-positive responses in 45 of 111 [41%, 31·3-50·3]).
Among influenza patients, there were significant but weak correlations between CoQ10 levels and IL-2 (r = -.30, P = .04), TNF-alpha (r = -.35, P = .01) and VEGF (r = .38, P = .007), but no correlation with IL-6, IL-10, VCAM or influenza severity of illness score (all P > .05).
Animals vaccinated with the IL2 viral vector showed an increased hemagglutination inhibition antibody response and higher protective efficacy after challenge with a wild-type influenza B virus when compared to mice vaccinated with a control virus.
Frequencies of circulating T cells producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2, and percentages of T cells proliferating after stimulation with rotavirus (RV), tetanus toxoid, and influenza were evaluated in PBMC derived from healthy adults and children.
Influenza-specific memory CD8(+) T-cell response maintained a highly functional profile in terms of multitude of effector molecule expression (CD107a, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MIP-1β and IL-2) and showed high avidity even in the setting of SIV infection.
We studied CD8 T cell responses against HIV-1, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and influenza in 128 subjects and demonstrate that polyfunctional CD8 T cell responses, also including IL-2 production and Ag-specific proliferation, are predominantly driven by virus epitopes restricted by HLA-B alleles.
We compared the safety and immunogenicity of a novel IL-2-supplemented liposomal influenza vaccine (designated INFLUSOME-VAC) with that of a commercial subunit vaccine and a commercial split virion vaccine in young adults (mean age 28 years) in the winter of 1999-2000.