Our findings support the conclusion that selective suppression of CXCL1/CXCL2 represents an IFN-β-mediated "training" of the macrophage transcriptional response to TLR2 agonists and that blocking of TLR4 therapeutically with Eritoran after influenza virus infection reverses this suppression by blunting influenza-induced IFN-β.
We previously demonstrated that the combination of synthetic small-molecule Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR7 ligands is a potent adjuvant for recombinant influenza virus hemagglutinin, inducing rapid and sustained immunity that is protective against influenza viruses in homologous, heterologous, and heterosubtypic murine challenge models.
To facilitate the generation of NP-specific CTL immunity the authors develop a novel influenza vaccine consisting of virosomes with the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligand monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) and the metal-ion-chelating lipid DOGS-NTA-Ni incorporated in the membrane.
Therefore, FP7 can antagonize TLR4 activation in vitro and protect mice from severe influenza infection, most likely by reducing TLR4-dependent cytokine storm mediated by damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) like HMGB1.
TLR4 1196 C>T effects were similar to TLR4 896 A>G for brucellosis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, leprosy, typhoid fever and S. pyogenes tonsillar disease, and was protective for bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy (0.55; 95%CI 0.31-0.98) and Haemophilus influenzae tonsillar disease (0.42; 95%CI 0.17-1.00).
All these results demonstrate that MHT can strikingly ameliorate influenza virus A pneumonia in mice, which is associated with the regulating effect of MHT in the imbalance of body's immune function and the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway of TLR4.
Here, we assessed the neonatal adjuvanticity of three novel adjuvants including TLR4 (glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant-squalene emulsion), TLR9 (IC31<sup>®</sup>), and Mincle (CAF01) agonists, which all induce germinal centers (GCs) and potent antibody responses to influenza hemagglutinin (HA) in adult mice.