Our results show that the lack of functional PKR permits the delNS1 virus to replicate in otherwise nonpermissive hosts, suggesting that the major function of the influenza virus NS1 protein is to counteract or prevent the PKR-mediated antiviral response.
As a consequence, influenzaNS1 gene knockout virus delNS1 (an influenza A virus lacking the NS1 open reading frame) fails to replicate in normal cells but produces infectious particles in PKR-deficient cells.
Cellular transcriptional profiling in influenza A virus-infected lung epithelial cells: the role of the nonstructural NS1 protein in the evasion of the host innate defense and its potential contribution to pandemic influenza.
Large-scale sequence analyses of influenza viruses revealed that nonstructural 1 (NS1) proteins from avian influenza viruses have a conserved C-terminal ESEV amino acid motif, while NS1 proteins from typical human influenza viruses have a C-terminal RSKV motif.
The NS1 proteins of most avian influenza viruses bear the C-terminal ligand sequence Glu-Ser-Glu-Val (ESEV) for PDZ domains present in multiple host proteins, whereas no such motif is found in the NS1 homologues of seasonal human virus strains.
The C-terminal tail of influenza virus NS1 protein constitutes a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) and is the binding domain of the cellular pre-mRNA processing protein, poly(A)-binding protein II (PABII).
This study aims at improving our understanding on the pathogenic mechanism of influenza viruses, in particular the role of non-structural (NS1) protein in inducing pro-inflammatory and apoptotic responses.
We propose that NS1 protein of both H5N1 and H11N1 subtypes of influenza viruses are capable of influencing host immune responses and possess necessary functionality to support apoptosis in host cells.
In conclusion, our results indicate that influenzaNS1 protein targets TRIM25 and Riplet ubiquitin E3 ligases in a species-specific manner for the inhibition of RIG-I ubiquitination and antiviral IFN production.
We designed six primers targeting the matrix genes of influenza H1 and H3 and the NS1 gene of influenza B and developed a M-LAMP assay using a commercially available Master Mix and a real time fluorometer (Genie II, Optigene, UK) that displays real time amplification, time to positivity and amplicon annealing temperature (Tm).