We report the clinical course of an individual with a clinical FTLD and the as yet unreported findings of coexistent APBD with FTLD-U and transactivation response DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43)-positive inclusions at autopsy (or more accurately, FTLD-TDP).
We therefore investigated 33 patients with FTLD-tau (including 9 with MAPT mutation) for TDP-43 pathological changes, and 45 patients with FTLD-TDP (including 12 with hexanucleotide expansion in C9ORF72 and 12 with GRN mutation), and 23 patients with motor neurone disease (3 with hexanucleotide expansion in C9ORF72), for tauopathy.
Most importantly, the expression of hnRNP A1/A2 and PTB/nPTB is significantly altered in patients with frontotemporal dementia with TDP-43-positive inclusions (FTLD-TDP), indicating that perturbations in RNA metabolism and processing in FTLD-TDP are not exclusively driven by a loss of TDP-43 function.
Here we provide a statistically rigorous method to account for staining batch effects in a large sample of brain tissue with frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tau inclusions (FTLD-Tau, <i>N</i> = 39) or TDP-43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP, <i>N</i> = 53).
In that report, we identified a 53-year-old man carrying a homozygous A382T missense mutation of the TARDBP gene with a complex neurological syndrome including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, parkinsonian features, motor and vocal tics, and frontotemporal dementia (FTD).
Thus, our results show that TDP-43 CTF expression recapitulates key biochemical features of pathological TDP-43 and support the hypothesis that the generation of TDP-43 CTFs is an important step in the pathogenesis of FTLD-U and ALS.
As such, we provide new insight into the structural basis for TDP-43 function and aggregation, and we suggest that stabilization of TDP-43 homodimers, the physiologically active form of TDP-43, may be a promising therapeutic strategy for ALS and FTLD-TDP.
Mutations in TDP-43 are associated with proteinaceous inclusions in neurons and are believed to be causative in neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal dementia or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Frontotemporal dementia, motor neuron disease, and frontotemporal dementia-motor neuron disease are characterised by overlapping patterns of TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) pathology, while the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) repeat expansion is common across the disease spectrum.
TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a major disease-associated protein involved in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U).
Advances in genetics and pathology have supported the idea of a continuum between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and motor neurone disease (MND), which is strengthened by the discovery of the trans-activating responsive (Tar) sequence DNA binding protein (TDP-43) as a key component in the underlying pathology of FTD, FTD-MND and sporadic and familial MND patients.
Previous data suggest heterogeneity in laminar distribution of the pathology in the molecular disorder frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with transactive response (TAR) DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP).
Inclusions of TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43), a nuclear protein that regulates transcription and RNA splicing, are the defining histopathological feature of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-Us) and sporadic and familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
TDP-43 proteinopathy (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions) is a newly categorized group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by abnormal accumulation and mislocalization of nuclear TDP-43 protein in the neuronal cytoplasm.