Moreover, as activation of δ-opioid receptor by a non-peptidic δ-opioid receptor agonist also modulates the expression, maturation and processing of amyloid precursor protein and β-secretase activity, the potential role of these effects on ischemic stroke caused dementia or Alzheimer's disease are also discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cognitive function and several serum miRNAs levels related to amyloid precursor protein (APP) proteolysis in a Japanese general population who had never been diagnosed with dementia.
Cystatin isolated from chicken egg white, called ovocystatin, has been widely used in the medical and pharmaceutical research due to its structural and biological similarities to human cystatin C. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of administering ovocystatin on the development of dementia-specific cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.
Recently, soluble fragments of the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (sTREM2) protein in CSF have been reported to be increased in prodromal AD and also in individuals with TREM2 rare genetic variants that increase the likelihood of developing dementia.
Therefore, we exposed an AD-relevant mouse model (APP/PS1 KI) to chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) (an experimental model of sleep apnea) to begin to describe one of the potential mechanisms by which SDB could increase the risk of dementia.
Also problematic is the alternative hypothesis that, instead of amyloid plaques, it is oligomers of amyloid precursor protein that cause AD.Evidence is presented suggesting amyloid/oligomers as necessary but insufficient causes of the dementia and that, for dementia to develop, requires the addition of cofactors known to be associated with AD.
We explored how levels of endocytic proteins, APP, its metabolites, secretase enzymes, and tau varied with age in cortical brain samples from men of three age ranges (young [20-30], middle aged [45-55], and old [70-90]) with no symptoms of dementia.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported as prodromal symptoms of AD-like dementia and soluble forms of beta amyloid peptide (Aβ), the main constituent of insoluble plaques typical of AD brains, have been implicated in such an effect.
The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a microglial innate immune receptor associated with a lethal form of early, progressive dementia, Nasu-Hakola disease, and with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease.
We used immunoassays to measure conventional CSF markers of amyloid and tau pathology (amyloid beta (Aβ)1-42, total tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated tau (P-tau)) as well as amyloid processing (AβX-38, AβX-40, AβX-42, soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPP)α, and sAPPβ), large fibre axonal degeneration (neurofilament light chain (NFL)), and neuroinflammation (YKL-40) in 245 patients with a variety of dementias and 30 controls.
We reveal an unexpected potential role of Trem2 in the homeostasis of endothelial cells that goes beyond its known functions as a microglial receptor and signaling hub, suggesting an underlying link between immune response and vascular disease in dementia.
BACE1 activity and sAβPPβ concentration were measured in patients with AD dementia (n = 56) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD (n = 76) with abnormal routine AD CSF markers, in patients with MCI with normal CSF markers (n = 39), and in controls without preclinical AD (n = 48).
Plasma membrane receptors play primary roles as activators of microglia and in this review, we focus on a receptor complex involving triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) and DNAX-activating protein of 12 kDa (DAP12), both of which are causative genes for Nasu-Hakola disease, a dementia with bone cysts.