The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of salidroside against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced vascular inflammation in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs), a specific cell type derived from coronary micro-vessels.
This was associated with increased neutrophilic airway inflammation, vascular permeability, myeloperoxidase activity in the lung with upregulated expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX2)/MCP-1/TNF-α in neutrophils and IL-17A in γδ T cells/lung.
Thus, in conclusion, these results indicate that IL-6 trans-signaling is an important mediator of inflammation, apoptosis and barrier disruptive effects in the retinal endothelial cells and inhibition of the IL-6 trans-signaling pathway using sgp130-Fc attenuates vascular inflammation and endothelial barrier disruption.
The hypertension and vascular endothelial dysfunction evoked by subpressor doses of angiotensin II (0.25 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup> ·day<sup>-1</sup> ) were studied, and vascular inflammation was quantified by flow cytometry and real-time PCR.
Cold exposure increased the levels of gut-derived inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 production in aorta and resulted in vascular inflammation, whereas atorvastatin prevented these effects.
We observed profound changes in mRNA levels for markers of tubular damage (Kim-1, NGAL) and regeneration (indirect marker of tubular injury, Ki-67), and tissue and vascular inflammation (IL-6, E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1) in kidneys of PHZ-treated mice, associated with ultrastructural signs of tubular injury.
SID suppressed the activity of cathepsin V and reversed the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α), adhesion and chemotaxis of leukocytes and vascular inflammation induced by l-homocysteine in vivo and in vitro.
Luteolin has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory actions and protect against tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced vascular inflammation, monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and the formation of lipid-laden macrophages <i>in vitro</i>.
This established concept is based on both experimental animal models of vascular inflammation and Mendelian randomization studies demonstrating a causal relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukin-6) and cardiovascular disease risk.
This study showed no difference over 16 weeks in vascular inflammation in patients treated with a tumor necrosis factor-α antagonist or placebo and a modest increase in vascular inflammation in carotids after 52 weeks of treatment with adalimumab.