Previous reports indicate that the two-allele ER PvuII polymorphism could be associated with ER expression in breast cancer (Hill et al., Cancer Res., 49: 145-148, 1989) as well as with patient age at time of tumor diagnosis (Parl et al., Breast Cancer Res.Treat., 14: 57-64, 1989).
We found that some progestins used in OC were able to stimulate the growth of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) MCF-7 and T47DA18 human breast cancer cells but not ER- MDA-MB-231, BT-20, and T47DC4 human breast cancer cells.
In order to better understand the structural requirements for effective high affinity binding of estrogens and antiestrogens by the human estrogen receptor (ER), a comparative study was undertaken in which we examined: 1) native ER from the MCF-7 ER-positive human breast cancer cell line; 2) full length ER expressed in yeast; 3) the ER hormone binding domain (amino acid residues 302-595) expressed in yeast; 4) a bacterially expressed protein A fusion product encoding a truncated ER (amino acid residues 240-595); and 5) a synthetic peptide encompassing amino acids 510-551 of the ER.
Data from these cell lines suggest that human breast cancer progression results first in the loss of ER, and subsequently in VIM acquisition, the latter being associated with increased metastatic potential through enhanced invasiveness.
Studies on estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human breast cancer cell lines have shown that estrogen treatment positively modulates the expression of the genes encoding transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha), 52-kDa cathepsin-D, and pS2.
We have examined the ability of estradiol (E2) to regulate the expression of three mRNAs [for pS2, progesterone receptor (PR), and estrogen receptor (ER)], known to be under E2 regulation in the parental E2 growth-responsive MCF-7 cells, in an E2 growth-independent MCF-7 K3), previously isolated from the parental estrogen-dependent MCF-7 K1 human breast cancer cells after long term growth in vitro in the absence of estrogen, acquired estrogen-independent growth in vitro as well as the ability to form tumors in nude mice in vivo without estrogen.
The increasing evidence for the association of heat-shock proteins with steroid receptors suggests that AJ1 may play an important role in the control of estrogen-receptor transcriptional activity in breast cancers.
The effects of recombinant gamma interferon (IFN gamma) on proliferation, estrogen-receptor (ER) content, mRNA level and protein secretion of a breast cancer estrogen-induced protein pS2/BCEI were investigated in two human breast cancer cell lines, ZR75-1 and T47D.