This review is focused on the role of PON1 status in different atherosclerosis-related diseases that we have studied over the last twenty years (coronary heart disease, acute ischemic stroke, diabetes mellitus type 2, end-stage renal disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and sarcoidosis) with the aim to determine the true value of PON1 as a biomarker.
Significant correlations between diabetes mellitus and paraoxonase activity (<i>R =</i> ⁻0.264, <i>p =</i> 0.026) and between the premature coronary heart disease in family history and PON1 activity (<i>R =</i> ⁻0.293, <i>p =</i> 0.013) were found.
The current results strongly suggest that Zn may have a protective effect in non-coronary atherosclerosis and indicate that this element may exert its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions through interactions with PON1 activity.
The activity of PON1 is decreased in patients with coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction or chronic kidney disease. rs662 and rs854560 are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with PON1 activity and 10-year cardiovascular mortality of patients with stable coronary artery disease.
We illustrate the proposed method through three meta-analyses for comparison of prostate cancer treatment, for the association between paraoxonase 1 activities and coronary heart disease, and for the association between homocysteine level and coronary heart disease.
Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is located on HDL.Meta-analysis of clinical epidemiological investigations reveals a substantial association of low serum PON1 activity with coronary heart disease incidence independent of other risk factors including HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI (apoAI).
The links between PON1 and Hcy in relation to pathological states such as coronary artery disease, stroke, diabetic mellitus, kidney failure and Alzheimer's disease that emerge from recent studies are the topics of this review.
A genome-wide association study identified distinct single nucleotide polymorphisms within the PON-1 gene that were highly significantly associated with serum paraoxonase (1.18×10(-303)) or arylesterase (4.99×10(-116)) activity but these variants were not associated with either 3-year MACE risk in an angiographic cohort (n=2136) or history of either coronary artery disease or myocardial infarction in the Coronary Artery Disease Genome-Wide Replication and Meta-Analysis consortium (n≈80 000 subjects).