Unlike the defined role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene in adult hypertension, ACE gene did not show direct influence on childhood blood pressure (BP), rather, seemed to be related to childhood growth with age-dependent characteristics.
5A5A and 5A6A genotypes of MMP-3 (odds ratio (OR) 1.5; P = 0.021), II and ID genotypes of ACE (OR 1.7; P = 0.006) along with traditional ischaemic heart disease risk factors such as smoking (OR 4.9; P = 0.001), hypertension (OR 2.0; P = 0.001), diabetes mellitus (OR 2.9; P = 0.001) and dyslipidaemia (OR 2.1; P = 0.001) increased the risk of STEMI.
We hypothesized that perindopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, indicated for the treatment of hypertension (Ceconi et al., in Cardiovasc Res 73:237-246, 2007), and which plays a role in preventing endothelial dysfunction, may help to prevent or reduce the severity of regorafenib-induced HFSR.
Three-drug combinations: ACE inhibitor + beta-blocker + calcium antagonist, for patients with hypertension and coronary artery disease requiring intensive therapy, and ACE inhibitor + beta-blocker + statin, which will enable SPCs therapy for most patients, would also be useful.
Angiotensinogen was selected because of the putative link between it and mild to moderate essential hypertension and nephrosclerosis; angiotensin-converting enzyme because of its possible contribution to diabetic nephropathy; and renin, the angiotensin II receptor, and kallikrein because of their roles in hypertension and renal perfusion.
Antagonists of the renin-angiotensin system, such as angiotensin type 1 (AT(1)) receptor inhibitors and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, are becoming increasingly popular agents in treating patients with systemic hypertension and minimizing organ damage.
The genes encoding for the angiotensin-converting enzyme, endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase, and cytochrome P450 3A isoenzyme have been involved in the development of hypertension and in calcineurin inhibitor-induced hypertension.
The combination of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril and the hemorheological agent PTX, affecting various systems that are involved in blood pressure regulation, exhibits synergism and prevents an increase in arterial blood pressure during the development of arterial hypertension in SHRs (ie, from 5 to 11 weeks of life).
Given the equal outcome efficacy but fewer adverse events with ARBs, risk-to-benefit analysis in aggregate indicates that at present there is little, if any, reason to use ACE inhibitors for the treatment of hypertension or its compelling indications.
We used this method to analyze a) a highly polymorphic pentanucleotide repeat (CCTTT)(n) locus within the 5'-putative promoter region of the human inducible nitric oxide synthase gene (iNOS5) which is associated with diabetic complications and infectious diseases; b) a bi-allelic 27 bp VNTR region within intron 4 of endothelial nitric oxide gene (eNOS27) which is associated with hypertension in type 2 diabetes patients with coronary heart disease and excess risk of advanced diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes patients and c) an insertion/deletion polymorphism within the gene encoding angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE/ID) which is associated with cardiovascular pathology and nitric oxide activity, and is in strong linkage disequilibrium with functional variants.
Initial treatment of hypertension in diabetes should include drug classes demonstrated to reduce cardiovascular events; i.e., angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, diuretics, or dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers.
We examined the association between obesity and 13 angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphisms, including the presence (I) or absence (D) of an Alu element in intron 16 (I/D polymorphism), and performed haplotype analysis using data collected from participants of a community survey of hypertension among blacks living in Ibadan, Nigeria; Spanish Town, Jamaica; and Chicago, IL.