The IL-1 super-family of cytokines and receptors is highly pleiotropic and plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of several auto-inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and psoriasis.
Proteomic panels revealed IL-6 as a top differentially expressed cytokine in psoriasis with pathway analysis highlighting IL-1β ( Z score 3.7; P=1.02×10<sup>-23</sup>) as an upstream activator of the observed upregulated proteins.
Lesional skin of 10 patients with recent onset, untreated psoriasis has been investigated for expression of IL-1β, IL-17, IL-23 and other cytokines involved in the disease in comparison with normal skin of 10 healthy controls using a protein array method.
The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis.
We tested their effectiveness in the treatment of psoriasis in order to further investigate the potential topical anti-inflammatory activity of polyphenols by means of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled add-on clinical trial, after having examined their ability to downregulate the expression of IL-1β cytokine in monocyte/macrophage primary cell culture.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of NLRP3 in psoriasis biopsy samples and to assess the possible correlation of its expression with that of interleukin IL-1β and Caspase-1.
The results suggest that genetic variants related to increased IL-1β levels may be unfavorable when treating psoriasis with either anti-TNF or ustekinumab, whereas genetic variants related to high interferon-γ levels may be favorable when treating psoriasis with ustekinumab.
The compounds reported herein may have utility as lead compounds for the development of inhibitors of elastase-mediated activation of IL-36 and other IL-1 family cytokines in inflammatory conditions, such as psoriasis.
Overexpression of the major epidermal proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL) 1 alpha (IL-1α) and 1 beta (IL-1β) is positively correlated with symptom exacerbation and disease progression in psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, neutrophilic dermatoses, skin phototoxicity, and skin cancer.
PK2 promoted KC and macrophage to produce interleukin-1 (IL-1), the central player of inflammation and psoriasis, which acts on adjacent fibroblast to induce inflammatory cascades and KC hyperproliferation.
Among LL37-inducible genes, IL-1 cluster genes, particularly IL36G, are of interest because we observed coordinate increases in CAMP and IL-36γ in the lesional skin of psoriasis, whereas virtually no CAMP or IL-36γ was observed in nonlesional skin and normal skin.
Only a few genes were differentially induced in psoriasis (CLEC7A (dectin-1), Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, and mannose receptor C type 1 (MRC1)) or AD (MRC1, IL1RN, and IL1β) compared with normal epidermis.