Four years later in a second examination with molecular methods for a study of adrenal sarcomas, this diagnosis must be revised due to the lack of MDM-2 gene amplification and FKHR translocation which exclude sarcoma.
Mutations in the v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogenes homolog B1 (BRAF) isoform of the RAF kinase or KRAS isoform of the RAS protein are found as activating mutations in approximately 30% of all human cancers.
In details, activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations were detected in 21 % of 311 evaluable patients, Kirsten rat sarcoma 2 viral oncogene homolog mutation in 22 % of the 77 evaluable patients and anaplastic lymphoma kinase translocations analysis was performed in 74 patients and resulted positive in 23 % of cases.
We report here on the first set of ten such families, eight of which were identified through a proband with sarcoma. p53 exons 5 to 8 have been sequenced following polymerase chain reaction amplification performed on DNA isolated from total blood.
We evaluated BRG1 and INI1 expression in 12 SCCOHTs and in a series of 122 tumors that could mimic SCCOHT morphologically: 9 juvenile granulosa cell tumors, 47 adult granulosa cell tumors, 33 high-grade ovarian serous carcinomas, 9 desmoplastic round cell tumors, 13 Ewing sarcomas (5 from the pelvis and 8 from soft tissues), 1 round cell sarcoma associated with CIC-DUX4 translocation from soft tissue (thigh), 1 case of high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma of the ovary, and 9 melanomas.
We performed mutational analysis of recurrent mutation sites of PIK3CA (exons 9 and 20), JAK2 (exon 14), BRAF (exon 15), FOXL2 (exon 1), IDH1 (exon 4), AKT1 (exon 3), and EZH2 (exon 16) genes in 108 sarcomas by single- strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing.
Tumors and matched normal thyroid samples were tested for RAS, for the v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene (BRAF) substitution of valine (V) for glutamate (E) at codon 600 (the V600E mutation), for phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), for catalytic PI3k p110 subunit alpha (PIK3CA), for AKT, and for the presence of rearranged during transfection (ret) proto-oncogene/PTC (RET-PTC) and paired box-8 (PAX8)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) fusion protein (PAX8-PPARgamma) rearrangements by direct sequencing and reverse transcriptase-polymerases chain reaction analyses, respectively.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)3 and phosphatidylinositol‑4,5‑bisphosphate 3‑kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) mutations are found in various types of cancer, such as urinary bladder cancer, human papillomavirus‑positive tonsillar and base of the tongue squamous cell carcinoma, breast cancer and some childhood sarcomas.
KIT and PDGFRA mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors) and (ii) sarcomas displaying multiple, complex karyotypic abnormalities with no specific pattern, including leiomyo-sarcoma, and pleomorphic liposarcoma.
A t(11;22)(p13;p12) chromosomal translocation, juxtaposing the Wilms' tumor (WT1) and Ewing's sarcoma (EWS) genes, is the cytogenetic hallmark of desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT), a primitive multiphenotypic sarcoma arising in serosal tissues.
These results are in keeping with a "BCOR-alteration family" of renal and extrarenal neoplasms which includes CCSK and undifferentiated round cell sarcomas of soft tissue/primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy (which typically harbor BCOR internal tandem duplication), and BCOR-CCNB3sarcomas, all of which are primarily driven by BCOR overexpression and have overlapping (but not identical) clinicopathologic features.